• Abduction and adduction: Movement, e.g. of fingers, away from and towards the midline
  • Adduction: See Abduction.
  • General anesthesia: Anaesthesia (insensitivity) or narcosis (also referred to as “general anesthesia”). Combination of central nervous pain elimination (analgesia), temporary suspension of consciousness (hypnosis) and damping of vegetative functions, possibly extended by muscle relaxation.
  • Allodynia: Sensation of pain triggered by stimuli that do not usually cause pain.
  • Anamnesis (medical history): Targeted requesting of potentially medically relevant information. The aim is to record a patient’s medical history in the context of a current health problem: You inform the physicians about your complaints. The nature of your complaints and accompanying symptoms as well as their impact on everyday life and quality of life are examined by means of detailed questions. You will also discuss your life circumstances (work, handedness, previous illnesses, etc.). Your medical history is the essential basis for making a diagnosis.
  • Basic anatomical position: Body in the following position: standing upright, forearms supinated (palms turned forward), feet parallel.
  • Anterior and posterior: Pair of terms for determining the position of, for example, one anatomical structure relative to another. Anterior means situated nearer to the front side, posterior means situated nearer the back side. Other pairs of terms are: proximal and distal, radial and ulnar, and palmar and dorsal.
  • Arthrosis: Joint wear.
  • Clarification: The doctor must clarify the symptoms for the patient. This is the only way they can jointly determine how to proceed, i.e. the treatment plan. Only after the physician has properly informed the patient can the latter freely decide whether they want to receive treatment and, if so, what type of treatment they want. Patients should be informed about the procedure or treatment to the extent that they can give informed consent. However, the clarification must not cause a state of anxiety that is detrimental to a patient’s state of health. Medical science is thus faced with the following optimisation task: According to the FMH legal service, in order to enable patients to better understand and “digest” the information, in case of medically necessary surgical procedures it is appropriate to explain the five most frequent or serious risks. In addition to these legal aspects, clarification is also of great importance for the practice of medicine itself: it builds trust and the reinforces the patient’s sense of security. Clarification is an exchange between physician and patient. It calls for mutual cooperation. Adequate patient information is important for every treatment. It is a condition required to fulfill the treatment contract. The will of the patient must be respected. This is a prerequisite for any medical treatment and care.
  • Axon: Long tube-like nerve cell extension (also called neurite) surrounded by a sheath of special cells (ganglion cells) and which, together with this sheath, is called a nerve fiber.


  • Ischaemia: A tourniquet is applied to the hand. A blood pressure cuff is then inflated on the patient’s upper arm to stop blood flow into the hand. This makes it easier to visualise very small structures (e.g. nerves in the hand). As the structures in the surgical field can be better visualised, they can also be protected more easily.
  • Bowstring phenomenon: Also referred to as bowstringing. If the flexor tendons are insufficiently guided by torn annular ligaments, the flexor tendons lift off of the bone “like a taut bowstring off of a bow” in the palmar direction. This can be painful. Finger flexion is often restricted because the sliding amplitude of the tendon is reduced by the insufficient guidance. Annular ligament tear is a common climbing injury. The bowstring phenomenon is a rare complication after the surgical treatment of trigger finger.


  • Carpus (wrist): The carpal bones are arranged in two rows between the forearm bones and the metacarpal bones. They form several rows of joints that constitute the wrist. The carpal bones are clinically relevant because they are affected by numerous degenerative diseases, fractures, ligament injuries (instability) and their consequences:
    • Scaphoid bone (Os scaphoideum): Fracture, pseudarthrosis, STT osteoarthritis
    • Lunate bone (Os lunatum): Kienböck’s disease, ulnocarpal conflict (lunatomalacia)
    • Triquetral bone (Os triquetrum): bony avulsion of the radiotriquetral ligament
    • Greater multiangular bone (Os trapezium): Rhizarthrosis, STT osteoarthritis
    • Lesser multiangular bone (Os trapezoideum): STT osteoarthritis
    • Capitate bone (Os capitatum): mediocarpal arthrosis, Fenton syndrome
    • Unciform bone (Os hamatum): Hook of hamate syndrome, fracture of the hook of the unciform bone
  • Computed tomography (CT): CT is an imaging examination. X-rays are sent into the body from various directions. The absorption of the radiation is density dependent and tissue specific. A computer uses the X-ray absorption of an x-rayed body to calculate cross-sectional images in three planes. Computed tomography generates much more detailed images of a body than X-rays, since each cross-sectional plane is viewed individually and the overlapping of different structures is practically eliminated. Computed tomography is very well suited for assessing complex fractures, for therapy planning or evaluating bone healing in detail after conservative or surgical therapy.
  • CRPS: Synoymous with complex regional pain syndrome, Sudeck’s disease or algodystrophy. A known trigger factor, pain (allodynia, hyperalgesia), swelling, circulatory problems, sweating and skin changes (Budapest Criteria) are considered pathognomic for the disease. Functional limitations in the form of weakness and limited mobility may also occur as the disease progresses. The disease leads to tissue dystrophy and atrophy. Treatment requires the cooperation of several professional groups (pain center, hand therapy, hand surgery) and includes, depending on severity, cortisone shock therapy, antineuropathic drugs such as gabapentin or pregabalin as well as intensive physiotherapy and occupational therapy. The treatment is often lengthy and is characterised by permanent functional impairments.


  • De Quervain’s dislocation fracture: Combination of a luxation of the carpal bones around the lunate bone (Os lunatum) and a scaphoid fracture (Os scaphoideum), named after the Swiss surgeon Fritz de Quervain (= trans-scaphoid perilunate fracture dislocation).
  • De Quervain’s tendovaginitis: See De Quervain’s tendinitis.
  • Diagnosis: Identification of a disease. The diagnosis is based on the patient’s medical history, the clinical examination and, if necessary, further examinations by technical equipment – an overview of all objective facts and findings. Therapy can only be planned after the diagnosis has been made.
  • Diagnostics: Various analytical methods such as anamnesis, clinical examination and further examinations by technical equipment or the path to making a diagnosis. The successful diagnosis ends with naming the clinical picture established.
  • Digital canal: Slide bearings of the flexor tendons in the area of the fingers. The digital canal is formed dorsally by the phalanges, joints and palmar plates, and palmarly by the annular ligaments. The digital canal is lined with a sliding layer. The flexor tendons run along this canal.
  • Distal: See Proximal.
  • Dorsal: See Palmar.
  • Triquetral bone: Os triquetrum, see carpus.
  • Dupuytren’s disease: Benign connective tissue transformation and tumour (metaplasia) of the palmar fascia, which tends to be phase-like and most frequently affects men over 50. The little finger and ring finger are often affected. The disease forms nodules and strands and can thus lead to an extension deficit of the finger joints due to the shortening of the connective tissue fascia: Dupuytren’s contracture. Although the disease itself does not require treatment, the bending contracture of finger joints does. At an early stage it is not possible to say with certainty which patients will develop contracture with extension deficit of the finger joints. The biological severity index estimates the risk. Seeking medical advice is recommended as soon as you can no longer lay your hand flat on a tabletop (tabletop test) or put our hand into your pocket (pocket test). The treatment is minimally invasive using Xiapex infiltration, percutaneous needle fasciotomy or open surgery is performed via partial fasciotomy (see also treatments).


  • Consent: See Clarification.
  • ENMG: Electroneuromyography or electroneurography (ENG) is a neurological examination that tests the functioning of a peripheral nerve. The nerve’s conduction velocity and dispersion as well as amplitude and refractory period are measured. Here it is possible to differentiate between damage to the nerve sheath (myelin sheath) and damage to the nerve fiber itself (axon). Destruction of the myelin sheath leads to a reduction of the nerve conduction velocity due to impaired saltatory conduction. In contrast, the amplitude of the stimulus response is reduced due to the loss of axons.
  • Enthesiopathy of the lateral humeral epicondyle: Also called tennis elbow; overstrain syndrome or degenerative disease of the muscle origin of the external (lateral) elbow (enthesiopathy rather than tendinitis or inflammation); about 10 times more frequent than the disease of the medial side (also called golfer’s elbow).
  • Enthesiopathy of the medial humeral epicondyle: Also called golfer’s elbow; overstrain syndrome or degenerative disease of the muscle origin of the inner medial elbow (enthesiopathy rather than tendinitis or inflammation). Caused by repetitive wrist flexion and forearm pronation. May be associated with ulnar nerve compression at the elbow. Symptoms include inner elbow pain. The disease of the lateral side (also called tennis elbow) is approx. 10 times more common.
  • Medial epicondyle: Olecranon – bone structure of the medial distal humerus. Among other things, origin of the extrinsic flexor muscles. The ulnar nerve runs around the medial epicondyle on the dorsal side.
  • Epicondylectomy: Partial removal or chiselling of a bony protrusion of the medial distal humerus. Therapy option to relieve tension on the ulnar nerve, or treat subluxation of the nerve.
  • Ergotherapy: The goal of ergotherapy (occupational therapy) is the correct execution of everyday activities as well as self-determined participation in all aspects of sociocultural and professional life. This is achieved by improving, restoring or compensating for the impaired abilities and functions. In addition to suitable exercises, aids are used to adapt the patient’s environment to their remaining abilities and thus achieve optimum rehabilitation.
  • Extension: See Flexion.
  • Extrinsic musculature: See Intrinsic musculature.


  • Fasciotomy: Minimally invasive therapy option for Dupuytren’s disease. The diseased tissue is severed by means of enzymes (Xiapex) or surgically (e.g. using a needle). The diseased tissue is left in the hand.
  • Partial fasciectomy: Open surgical treatment option for Dupuytren’s disease. The diseased connective tissue nodes and strands are surgically removed.
  • Flexion and extension: Bending and stretching e.g. of a joint. The flexion and extension can be documented without interpretation using the neutral-zero method.
  • Functional position of the hand: The hand’s range of motion can be measured objectively and accurately and described using the neutral-zero method. The general functionality of the hand in everyday private and working life is nevertheless more important for the patient than the range of motion of individual joints. The following hand grip/grasp types were thus defined in order to examine the global motion of the hand: the spherical grip (hand grasps a ball), the tip pinch, pinch grip or pincer grip (fingertip of the thumb and index finger touch), the key or clamping pinch (the tip of the thumb rests on the middle phalanx facing the thumb, such as when inserting a key), the wide or power grip (e.g. grasping a pair of pliers with the thumb and fingers) and the hook grip (e.g. grasping a door handle).


  • Ganglion (also called cyst): the most common tumour of the hand. It is a benign mass that originates from joints or tendon sheaths. This mass is bounded on the outside by a membrane and filled with a gelatinous lubricating fluid, which is formed by the joint capsule or tendon sheath. A ganglion is harmless and does not necessarily require therapy. Ganglions can cause mechanical conflict and pain when patients bend and stretch the adjacent joint (see also Treatments).
  • Garrod’s pad: See Knuckle pads.
  • Golfer’s elbow: See Enthesiopathy of the medial humeral epicondyle.
  • Power grip: See Functional position of the hand.


  • Unciform bone: Os hamatum, see Carpus.
  • Hook grip: See Functional position of the hand.
  • Carpal bones: See Carpus.


  • Biological severity index: Questionnaire to evaluate the aggressiveness of Dupuytren’s contracture both before and after treatment (that is, the risk of recurrence as well). Each positive answer indicates a relatively rapid progression of the disease: bilateral hand involvement of the disease, backside involvement over the knuckle pads, known disease in the family (positive family history), male sex, disease onset before the age of 50, thumb affected, more than two fingers affected, disease affects the penis root (Peyronie’s disease) or the sole of the foot (Ledderhose’s disease).
  • Peyronie’s disease (Induratio penis plastica): Benign connective tissue tumour at the level of the penis root, associated with Dupuytren’s disease (see also Biological severity index).
  • Intrinsic and extrinsic musculature: Muscles that move the fingers, hand and wrist. The intrinsic musculature originates in the hand (ball of the thumb, ball of the little finger, interdigital muscles), while the extrinsic musculature originates in the forearm.


  • Scaphoid bone: Os scaphoideum, see Carpus.
  • Carpal tunnel: Anatomical region at the level of the carpal bones (carpus). The carpal tunnel is in fact a tunnel bounded dorsally by the carpal bones and palmarly by a transverse ligament (flexor retinaculum). The structures bounding the carpal tunnel are rigid rather than elastic. An increase in volume in the carpal tunnel thus leads to an increase in pressure. The median nerve and the flexor tendons of the fingers and thumb pass through the carpal tunnel.
  • Carpal tunnel syndrome: Nerve compression syndrome of the median nerve at wrist level in the carpal tunnel. Most common nerve compression syndrome in the human body (see also Treatments).
  • Clinical examination: The physician inspects, palpates, checks the function of the body’s different functional units and carries out provocation tests using his own senses and simple aids. The clinical examination is always targeted and adapted to the patient’s symptoms as determined by the medical history. It analytically differentiates the tentative diagnosis from the possible differential diagnoses. As the hand’s different functional structures are located in a very tight space, a detailed clinical examination is essential to find the structure that is causing your difficulty.
  • Knuckle pads: Possible expression of Dupuytren’s disease over the dorsal proximal interphalangeal joints. Rounded, benign, fibrous, sometimes painful thickening. Surgical excision is a possible treatment option for symptomatic and problematic thickening.
  • Compartment syndrome: Increased tissue pressure in a closed or confined tissue system, e.g. a muscle group, leads to a reduction in tissue perfusion. Neuromuscular damage and irreversible tissue damage may occur if the pressure is not relieved. The main symptom is very severe pain that cannot be treated with simple painkillers. We recommend consulting a physician without delay if you suspect you have this condition.
  • Capitate bone: Os capitatum, see Carpus.
  • Cortisone infiltration: See “trigger finger” and ganglion.
  • Claw hand: Pathological resting position of the hand caused by ulnar paralysis (e.g. cubital tunnel syndrome) with hyperextension of the finger base joints and flexion of the middle and end joints.
  • Cubital tunnel syndrome: Second most common nerve compression in humans. Nerve compression syndrome of the ulnar nerve at the level of the elbow. Clinically conspicuous due to obdormition of the little finger and the ring finger on the little finger side and in the course of a weakness of the abduction and adduction of the fingers and the key pinch (adduction of the thumb). In the final stage, possible development of claw hand (see also Treatments).
  • Spherical grip: See Functional position of the hand.


  • Ledderhose’s disease: Ledderhose or Ledderhose’s disease; benign connective tissue tumour at the level of the plantar fascia (see also Dupuytren’s disease and biological severity index).
  • Lege artis: The contractual obligation to perform shall be fulfilled in accordance with the current state of scientific knowledge, the recognised codes of practice, and the use of one’s physical and mental abilities as well as skills and knowledge.
  • Loge de Guyon: Anatomical region adjacent to the carpal tunnel. Physiological constriction between the pisiforme bone (Os pisiforme) and the hook-like process of the unciform bone (hamulus ossis hamati) in which the ulnar artery and nerve split into a superficial and deep branch and pass through. Possible location of ulnar nerve compression syndrome.
  • Local anaesthesia: Injection of local anaesthetics to anaesthetise and deaden pain in a specific area of skin and tissue supplied by defined nerves without affecting consciousness, possibly in combination with vasoconstrictive substances.
  • Luxation: Dislocation of a joint. After luxation, the joint is no longer congruent and is distinguished from contorsion or joint sprain.


  • Median nerve: See N. medianus.
  • Metaplasia: Transformation of one differentiated cell type into another differentiated cell type. Connective tissue cells (fibroblasts and fibrocytes) transform into contractile cells (myofibroblasts and myofibrocytes) due to Dupuytren’s contracture.
  • Lunate bone: Os lunatum, see Carpus.
  • MRI: MRI is an imaging examination. Magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) generates a very strong magnetic field that excites the particles (atoms) in the human body. The excitation and the relaxation time after excitation are tissue-specific. The excitation of the atoms induces a measurable electrical signal in the receiver circuit. This signal is picked up for spatial points smaller than 1 mm, and the computer then calculates the cross-sectional images from these values. This examination is particularly suitable for assessing soft tissue (ligament lesions, cartilage wear, ganglion, soft tissue tumours).
  • Crazy bone: See Funny bone.


  • Needle fasciotomy, percutaneous: Technical minimally invasive variant to treat Dupuytren’s contracture. The skin is punctured with a needle under very superficial anaesthesia, and the needle tip then severs the contracted strand of the palmar fascia. The treated tissue thus remains in the hand. As needle fasciotomy has a lower risk of complications but a slightly higher risk of recurrence, it is suitable for patients with a slowly progressing disease, a few affected fingers only, and thin strands (see also Treatments). Recovery period is often significantly shorter than with open surgical techniques.
  • Funny bone: Of the three main nerves of the hand, only the ulnar nerve runs along the back of the elbow. At the inner elbow (medial epicondyle) the ulnar nerve is very superficial and close to the humerus. It thus has little soft-tissue padding and, due to the bone being directly underneath it, there is no deeper place for it to go in the event of an impact. Its sensitive innervation area thus generates the feeling of pain when bumped (“funny bone”).
  • Needling: See Needle fasciotomy, percutaneous.
  • Necrosis: Death of single or multiple cells; pathological process triggered by a damaging influence: e.g. nutrient and oxygen deficiency, toxins, local pressure increase or compartment syndrome.
  • Ulnar nerve syndrome: See Cubital tunnel syndrome.
  • Neutral-zero method: Standardized evaluation and documentation index for the joint mobility. It is defined as a 3-digit code that indicates a joint’s range of motion around a given axis in degrees.
  • N. medianus: Also called median nerve or middle nerve; one of the three major nerves of the upper extremity. On the palmar side, it innervates the thumb, index finger, middle finger sensitively and the radial side of the ring finger, as well as most of the thumb ball muscles and the long flexor muscles of the fingers motorically.
  • N. radialis: One of the three major nerves of the upper extremity. It innervates the radial side of the hand dorsally and the extensor muscles of the wrist and fingers motorically.
  • N. ulnaris: One of the three major nerves of the upper extremity. It innervates the ulnar or little finger side of the ring finger and the little finger sensitively, as well as the little finger ball muscles and most of the intrinsic musculature motorically, which among other things spreads the long fingers (abduction). Of the three main nerves of the hand, only the ulnar nerve runs along the back of the elbow.


  • Os capitatum: Capitate bone, see Carpus.
  • Os hamatum: Unciform bone, see Carpus.
  • Os lunatum: Lunate bone, see Carpus.
  • Os scaphoideum: Scaphoid bone, see Carpus.
  • Os triquetrum: Triquetral bone, see Carpus.
  • Os trapezium: Greater multiangular bone, see Carpus.
  • Os trapezoideum: Lesser multiangular bone, see Carpus.
  • Osteophyte: Bone spur. Degenerative changes near the joint with formation of bony extensions or protrusions. The formation is considered an attempt by the body to widen the contact surface of an osteoarthritic joint in order to reduce the pressure per unit of surface area.


  • Palmar and dorsal: Pair of terms for determining the position of, for example, one anatomical structure relative to another. Palmar means situated near the palm of the hand, while dorsal means situated near the back of the hand. Volar is synonymous with palmar. Other pairs of terms are: proximal and distal, radial and ulnar, as well as anterior and posterior.
  • Pathognomic: Characteristic of a disease.
  • Patient obligations: The treatment contract creates rights and obligations on both sides, i.e. the service provider and the patient. The patient or, on their behalf, the insurer must comply with the following obligation: timely payment of a correct doctor’s or hospital bill. The patient is obliged to provide the physician with the necessary information about themselves and their condition. They must also respect the house rules in the hospital, follow the instructions of the staff, and generally show consideration for other patients and staff.
  • Pinch grip: See Functional position of the hand.
  • Plexus anaesthesia: Similar in meaning to regional anaesthesia, conduction anaesthesia, partial anaesthesia. Localised anaesthetisation in the area of the nerve tracts without impairing consciousness. For this purpose, local anaesthetics are injected into the direct vicinity of the nerves that sensitively innervate the hand in order to temporarily suppress the electrical conductivity of the nerves.
  • Pocket test:: Can you put your hand into your pocket? The extension deficit or flexion contracture of the finger joints, e.g. in patients with Dupuytren’s contracture, can be roughly assessed in this way. Another common test is the tabletop test.
  • Polyneuropathy: Group of diseases affecting several (= poly) peripheral nerves. Depending on the clinical picture, distinctions are made between diseases that tend to affect the cellular processes of the nerve cells (axons) or primarily affect the sheaths of the nerve processes, or that generally affect the proximal or the distal, or the motoric, sensitive or autonomic nerves, as well as symmetrical and asymmetrical forms. There is a wide range of possible symptoms, depending on the type of nerve affected. There are many possible causes. The most common causes include diabetes, medication or vitamin deficiency.
  • Posterior: See Anterior.
  • Prognosis: Prognosis literally means: Prior knowledge or foreknowledge. It represents a probable development in the future. A prognosis is characterized by its scientific basis, wholly unlike a prophecy. Medically, the prognosis describes the probable course of the disease, e.g. with or without therapy.
  • Pronation and supination: Rotational or turning motion of the forearm. When the forearm is pronated, the ulna and radius cross; when the arm is hanging freely at a person’s side, the palm faces posteriorly; when the elbow is bent, the palm faces downwards. In supination, the ulna and radius are parallel to each other. When the arm is hanging freely at the side, the palm faces anteriorly; when the elbow is bent, the palm faces upwards.
  • Pronator compartment syndrome: Compression of the median nerve at the level of the proximal forearm is less common than carpal tunnel syndrome. May be associated with golfer’s elbow (enthesiopathy of the medial humeral epicondyle).
  • Proximal and distal: Pair of terms for determining the position of, for example, one anatomical structure relative to another. Proximal means situated nearer to the trunk or center, while distal means situated nearer the periphery. Other pairs of terms are radial and ulnar, dorsal and palmar, anterior and posterior.
  • Pyramidal bone: Also called Os triquetrum, see Carpus.


  • Radial nerve: See N. radialis.
  • Radial and ulnar: Is a pair of terms for determining the position of, for example, one anatomical structure relative to another. Radial means situated at the level of the fingers, hand and forearm on the thumb side or nearer the radial bone, while ulnar means situated on the little finger or ulnary side. Other pairs of terms are proximal and distal, dorsal and palmar, anterior and posterior.
  • Radius: One of the two forearm bones; also called the radial bone. Along with the ulna (elbow bone) it forms the bony framework of the forearm and is part of the elbow joint and wrist.
  • Convalescence: Healing, recovery process.
  • Remission: Temporary or permanent reduction of disease symptoms as opposed to healing of the disease.
  • Flexor retinaculum: A ligament that runs transversely over the carpus and delimits the carpal tunnel on the palmar side.
  • Relapse: Recurrence of a disease after initial successful treatment or after spontaneous remission.
  • Annular ligaments: Ligaments running across the phalanges (annular ligaments A1-5) form a canal with the phalanges. Surrounded by the tendon sheath, the flexor tendons slide back and forth in this canal. The annular ligaments guide the tendons in proximity to the bone. The contracture of the flexor muscles thus results directly in the displacement of the tendon (sliding amplitude). This is a prerequisite for the muscle contracture to be converted into movement. Destruction of the annular ligament system results in the bowstring phenomenon. The annular ligaments have a differing relevance. The annular ligament nearer the palm (A1 annular ligament) is split to treat the trigger finger without decreasing the flexor tendon displacement. Complete destruction of the annular ligament system results in the bowstring phenomenon.
  • Radiography (conventional): Radiography is an imaging examination. The differing tissue densities of the human body absorb X-rays to varying degrees. X-ray diagnostics makes use of this difference in absorption. The conventional X-ray image represents the 3-D object (e.g. of a hand) by means of a 2-D image. That is why two X-ray images of the same region are often taken from two directions (in two planes). X-ray diagnostics is a good way to visualise bone fractures and degenerative joint disease. Depending on the tentative diagnosis, the X-ray examination is supplemented by further imaging (CT or MRI).


  • Snapping finger: See Trigger finger.
  • Key pinch: See Functional position of the hand.
  • Trigger finger: Also known as snapping finger, spring finger, trigger digit or digitus saltans. Inflamed or thickened flexor tendons no longer slide freely and without resistance through the thickened ring ligaments. The digital tunnel is too narrow in relation to the tendon (stenosing tenosynovitis). This results in a snagging, snapping or triggering phenomenon. Although the affected person can at first still actively bend or stretch the finger by increased exertion, as the symptoms progress the active force is no longer sufficient and the other hand is used to move the finger ray. Although the process may eventually lead to complete blocking of the finger, this rarely occurs. There are many possible causes; snagging is often painful (see also Treatments).
  • Sonography: Sonography is an imaging examination: Ultrasound penetrates body tissue. An image of the internal tissue structures is generated based on reflection patterns of the ultrasound on the tissue surfaces inside the body. This examination is particularly suitable for assessing soft tissue (tendons, nerves, ganglia, soft tissue tumours).
  • Spring finger: See Trigger finger.
  • Extensor tendon compartments: The extensor tendons of the fingers and wrist run through six separate canals formed by the forearm bones near the wrist and a transverse ligament (retinaculum extensorum) above them.
  • Sulcus ulnaris: Canal at the level of the medial epicondyle through which the ulnar nerve runs. Anatomical area in which ulnar nerve compression most often occurs. In contrast, compression at the level of the Loge de Guyon is relatively rare.
  • Supination: See Pronation.


  • Tabletop test: The patient places his/her hand on the table surface. The extension deficit or flexion contracture of the finger joints, e.g. in patients with Dupuytren’s contracture, can be roughly assessed in this way. Another common test is the pocket test.
  • De Quervain’s tendinitis: Acute inflammation with tenderness on palpation along the thumb extensor tendons in the first extensor tendon compartment (M. abductor pollicis longus, M. extensor pollicis brevis). Stretching pain in the tendons is pathognomic (Finkelstein test).
  • Stenosing tenosynovitis: See De Quervain’s tendinitis and “trigger finger”.
  • Tennis elbow: See Enthesiopathy of the lateral humeral epicondyle.
  • Trigger finger: See “Trigger finger”.
  • Torsion: Twisting of the joint, which can be accompanied by straining or tearing of the ligament. It differs from luxation, in which the dislocated joint is no longer congruent.
  • Tumour: Growth or swelling and thus, in a broader sense, any circumscribed increase in volume of a tissue regardless of the cause. A rough distinction is made between benign tumours (e.g. ganglion) and malignant tumours (cancer).


  • Synovial cyst: Also known as ganglion.
  • Ulna: One of the two forearm bones; also called the ulna. Along with the radial bone (radius), it forms the bony framework of the forearm and is part of the elbow joint and wrist.
  • Ulnar: Situated on the ulnar side or the little finger side; see also Radial.
  • Ulnar nerve: See N. ulnaris.
  • Ulnar tunnel syndrome: See Cubital tunnel syndrome.
  • Ulnar transposition: Also known as forward displacement of the ulna. Displacement of the ulnar nerve from its anatomical position behind the humerus near the elbow to the front. Doing so prevents compression during elbow-supporting activities and straining of the ulnar nerve during activities with pronounced elbow flexion.


  • Volar: Synonymous with palmar.
  • Multiangular bone, greater: Os trapezium, see Carpus.
  • Multiangular bone, lesser: Os trapezoideum, see Carpus.